Mark Minasi has entertained and informed tens of thousands over the years, which is one reason why he's so much in demand as a conference speaker. Following are the talks that he does most often. These talks generally run best as 75 minute - 90 minute presentations, but can be lengthened or shortened. If you'd like to see a brief demo of Mark in action, take a look at the promo tape for his The Software Conspiracy talk here.
As you can see from the rest of this page, Mark has prepared and delivered talks on a wide variety of topics. But for your convenience, here's the "short list" of the newest and most-requested talks:
The talks fall roughly into several categories.
With Windows 2000 just around the corner, both managers and technologists need to know what to expect, how to plan, and how to get the most out of the next generation of Microsoft's flagship operating system. These talks are excerpts from Mark's upcoming Mastering Windows 2000 Server.
These talks focus on the "people" end of the support and teaching business -- how to create and manage a terrific stable of top-quality instructors, how to get technical points across even to non-technical audiences, and how to battle the negative effects that stress can have on support and teaching professionals.
August 1999 will see the publication by McGraw-Hill of Mark's hard-hitting look at the software industry from the point of view of the consumer. The book, called Software Kills, is intended to provoke debate about the question: why do we tolerate buggy software? To most people, high bug counts, periodic unexplainable crashes, and generally unreliable behavior in software is as inevitable as death and taxes -- but it doesn't have to be that way. This talk is based on that book:
PC and network technology seem to change at such a rapid pace that it's hard to keep up, and technical staff and management need regular updates in those areas. These sessions fill that need, providing necessary background on technical issues.
Some of Mark's most successful products are his books, videos, and seminars on Microsoft Windows NT. These short and highly focused talks zero in on a part of the NT.
Anyone using NT is probably using Windows as well. Quickly learn to solve the thorniest Windows problems with these brief, pithy talks on Windows technical issues.
One of the hardest parts about running a support and training organization is getting, developing, and keeping high-quality staff. In this session, TechTeach International founder Mark Minasi explains how TTI tried many approaches to internal staff instructor development before hitting on a kind of "boot camp" Instructor Academy. Come to this session and find out what worked - and didn't work - for TTI, and save yourself a lot of time!
In 14 years of operation, TechTeach International has had a nearly constant need for high-quality technical instructors. As a technical education firm, one of the hardest things to do is find "techies" who can teach. Ever been to a class taught by someone who clearly knows the stuff, but just mumbles at the blackboard and seems unable to speak a sentence without jargon? Or how about the extremely entertaining presenter who has learned how to teach the class "by rote," and despite being very easy to listen to clearly doesn't have any deep knowledge of the subject? Neither is acceptable, but it's what we see in so much technical instruction today.
We have found that it is often easier to hire teachers and teach them how to be technical than it is to show techies how to teach. How do you do that? Once, we teamed new hires with "seasoned" instructors for 6 - 8 weeks, teaching chunks of the class until they've taught the whole class in front of the "seasoned" instructor. This proved to be costly and very wearing on new instructors however, we needed a better answer, so we came up with our Instructor Academy. It's cheaper, more effective, and very successful - but we learned along the way that there are some right ways and some wrong ways to make it work. It's still not perfect, however, so you'll be challenged as attendees to share similar experiences and tell us what's worked and not worked for you!
Zero Admin Windows, PC98, Windows 98, NT 5, Intel's Deschutes and Merced processors, FireWire, USB,... ever feeling like you're falling behind in the daily "who knows the most jargon" contests? We're bombarded daily with more "new initiatives," new choices, and new technology. Who has time to keep up with it, to sort the wheat from the chaff? Technology watcher Mark Minasi does - come join him for a birds-eye view of what new, what's important, and what can be ignored!
Hardly a week goes by without an announcement of some new industry "initiative," some bold new technology that you simply can't live without - something that the experts claim will make totally obsolete your current configuration - the configuration based on the things those same experts told you last year were essential. Some of sounds good, but you can't waste your time and money on technological blind alleys.
Both PC hardware and software are innovating at as fast a pace as ever. Perhaps the single most important new technology is Zero Administration Windows (ZAW), a tool that may revolutionize supporting "Wintel" desktops. This session explains how that'll work, but that's just the start. Windows NT 5 and Windows 98 seem like close cousins, but only Windows NT 5 will offer complete support for Zero Administration Windows!
On the hardware side, PCs are changing rapidly due to a much-needed new standard for hardware called the "PC98" specification. PC98-compliant network cards, Universal Serial Bus and IEEE 1394/FireWire are starting to simplify the process of upgrading hardware. Is the time to change hardware and software now, or should you wait another version or two?
Technology speaker, author, and columnist Mark Minasi watches these issues for a living as an independent industry watcher. Come to this talk and get the unbiased (and entertaining) view on what to watch in the year ahead - and perhaps what you should have been watching all along.
Eventually, Microsoft will ship Zero Administration Windows (ZAW) and remote support will get much easier. But ZAW's not here yet -- what to do until then? Use the inexpensive (and often free!) tools that come with Windows and NT! In this presentation, Mark Minasi explains how to create scripted unattended installations, use system policies and user profiles, and exploit SYSDIFF to reduce your support workload. Based on Mark's upcoming book on this topic, this is a whirlwind tour through some real time-savers that you've already paid for -- and ought to start using.
Auggh! Another Windows? Windows 98 is right around the corner - are you ready for it? Like all new operating systems, Windows 98 offers some terrific pluses and some very troubling minuses. Join Mark Minasi, author of The Expert Guide to Windows 98, in a look at what challenges 98 offers - and how to avoid the "pane" of this new Windows!
The summer of 1998 saw the release of Windows 98. Many organizations still haven't adopted Windows 95, and so may be leery about this new addition to the PC operating system family. Others may want to jump right in, but need to know more before taking the plunge.
Having trouble finding good independent information about Windows 98's pros and cons? Then come to this lively, fast-paced, up-to-the-minute presentation by author Mark Minasi, writer of the bestselling Expert's Guide to Windows 98. As always, Mark will both entertain and inform you in this in-depth look at 98 - the pros, the cons, some things to look out for, and a few rollout tips and notes from someone who's been using Windows 98 day in and day out for almost a year.
On the plus side, it is largely just a "1.1" version of Windows 95 with support added for hardware like the PC98 specification. On the minus side, Windows 98 may obsolete some of your current hardware, and its new Internet Explorer 4/Active Desktop interface requires more computing power than many current desktop systems have; is implementing Windows 98 worth upgrading your hardware yet again?
Finally, as time permits, you'll also get a glimpse into perhaps the most important Windows 98 decision you can make - should you just adopt NT 5 (Windows 2000) instead? Come join Mark and get all your Windows 98 questions answered!
Just when it looked like Microsoft would finally kill off Windows once and for all, Windows 98 Second Edition appears, and rumor has it that it's not the last of the Windows line. But as usual Microsoft is complicating your choices by offering a new version of NT called Windows 2000 -- and yes, strange as it sounds, Windows 2000 isn't Windows, it's NT.
In the past five years, Microsoft has succeeded in virtually eliminating all competition in the PC desktop operating system market. One of the most effective tools they used to accomplish this goal was the "high/low" marketing approach -- there was NT for the high-end market and Windows 3.1 or 95, and now 98 for the low-end market, and even DOS for those still running ancient hardware or with very specialized needs. The result for you and me? Well, we no longer have to spend any time choosing a vendor for our OS -- "Resistance is futile" would probably be a better Microsoft slogan than "Where do you want to go today?" -- but it's still not simple choosing between Windows and NT (Win2K Professional).
NT/Windows 2000 or Windows 98 SE? Both of Microsoft's desktop offerings have their strengths and weaknesses - and nobody can explain them better that PC journalist and author Mark Minasi. In this fast-paced, in-depth look at NT and 98, you'll learn which is right for your organization, when both are right for your organization, and what's still missing -- and what might make you an Apple, Sun or Linux customer.
In this lively, fast-paced, up-to-the-minute presentation, independent Windows expert Mark Minasi, author of the upcoming Mastering Windows NT Workstation 5.0 and Mastering Windows NT Server 5.0, tells you all the latest about Windows NT 5.0/Windows 2000- the good, the bad and how to get ready for it!
It's easy to just shove a CD-ROM into a PC and run the setup program for NT - but there's much more to a good, supportable installation. Learn how to build setup batch scripts and how to ensure that you can do network support in this section
It would be simple to just buy a bunch of Ethernet cards and use NT's built-in networking capability to build a new network - but you already have a network. In this section, you'll learn how to leverage NT's networking features to simplify accessing you existing network resources, monitoring PCs and solving network problems.
What's new with Windows NT? Cairo? Windows 98? Windows 2000? Windows 2001? Come to Mark's annual "State of the Operating System" talk. You'll get an unbiased overview of the newest operating systems from the former writer of BYTE Magazine's Beyond DOS column, and author of Troubleshooting Windows, Mastering NT Server, The Windows Problem Solver, and Inside OS/2 WARP. Learn about the strengths and weaknesses, similarities and differences between these pivotal operating systems. Use this valuable information to get ready for your next operating system ... or to justify staying with your current operating system.
Microsoft's flagship LAN offering does Novell, TCP/IP, remote access and Macintosh - all for $700! Is this network operating system for you? Independent consultant and author of Mastering NT Server Mark Minasi reveals all in this information-packed talk about Microsoft's flagship networking tool. Don't know a domain from a workgroup? Then come to this talk.
Microsoft says NT is "self-tuning" and in fact it requires less tweaking than some of the competition. But there are some very important things to watch in order to keep your NT Server in peak condition. In this session, Windows NT magazine columnist Mark Minasi shows you which Performance Monitor counters to watch and what to do to maximize your server's performance.
Running an NT Network with two or more domains requires different strategies than does running a single-domain network. In this session, you'll learn how to take your current knowledge of NT and use it to build multi-domain networks. You'll also get a glimpse into how multi-domain networks will operate under the next version of NT, Windows 2000 Server.
Mark's series of columns in Windows NT magazine on IP addresses, IP routing and using an NT machine as a LAN/WAN Internet gateway have been tremendously popular. This session covers that same material: IP addresses, subnet masks, IP routing with NT, and how to make your NT Server into an internet/intranet LAN/WAN router. If you are managing an NT-based TCP/IP network, you won't want to miss this.
Both WINS and DNS solve a problem called "name resolution," translating computer names into network addresses. But why are there two name systems? And isn't it all changing in NT 5.0? Do I need both, or can I just use one of them? In this session, the author of the best selling Mastering Windows NT Server 4.0 explains how WINS an DNS differ, what they do, and how to get the most out of them, both in NT 4.0 and in the upcoming NT 5/Windows 2000!
Beset by blue screens? Can't make NT booth? NT's great when it runs, but what about when it doesn't? NT expert Mark Minasi shows you how to use NT's built-in error analysis tools to chase down systems failures.
Even if you're already and expert in UNIX or Novell networking, NT proficiency requires that you learn to "speak Microsoft" - and the two foundation questions are "what is a workgroup?" and "what is a domain?" In this session, you'll quickly learn how to exploit these basic NT structures in your network.
It would be simple to just buy a bunch of Ethernet cards and use 95's built-in networking capability to build a new network - but you already have a network. In this section, you'll learn how to leverage 95's networking features to simplify accessing your existing network resources, monitoring PCs and solving network problems.
O.K., now take a deep breath - "NetBEU, IPX/SPX, TCP/IP, UDP, NDIS, NetBIOS, ODI, NFS, network board drives, redirectors, shells, sockets, and APIs!" Learn what all these acronyms mean and how they fit together as network expert Mark Minasi guides you through his Total Overview of Everything (everything in the network world, that is.) Best of all, anyone can understand this, so come to this talk and dazzle your network administrator afterwards!
With the technology explosion centering around the advances in communications technology, the options available to you to communicate with your clients can be wide, yet confusing. In this session, we'll explore the latest buzzwords, what's hype and what's hot, the pros and cons, and what factors you need to evaluate to determine what is best for your organization.
Software has defects. (The programmers have taught us to call them "bugs," but they're defects nonetheless.) That, in and of itself, is not terrible: virtually every product has defects. What's amazing about shrink-wrap software, however, is the sheer number of defects. Popular operating systems, word processors, Internet browsers and e-mail packages have literally hundreds or thousands of defects -- can you imagine buying a microwave oven, a hamburger, a house or a car with thousands of defects?
Of course you can't. In our society, we normally put purveyors of low-quality products out of business. So why is software different?
In this thought-provoking talk based on his upcoming book The Software Conspiracy, software industry veteran Mark Minasi discusses why we accept low-quality software in the first place, why it doesn't seem to get much better, and presents a concrete multi-point plan that YOU, the software consumer, can follow to fix the software industry. And we'd better move fast: the software industry is even now spearheading a campaign to pass laws absolving them of all quality requirements, and unfortunately they're succeeding. Even if you don't use computers, software quality affects you, believe it or not -- the U.S. dominates the world software market, and if we don't clean up our act, we'll lose that lead -- and the entire country will suffer as a result.
From Ethernet to Windows NT to the Internet, discover how what's ahead in networking technologies can inform your IT decisions today. In this session you'll learn: which products/technologies will survive the long haul? What's coming next from Novell? Is the "NetPC" or "NC" in your future? Will Windows NT rule? How will all the rapid innovation in Net and Web-related technologies impact your organization? Can Zero Admin Windows work? What are the skills implications - now and for the future?
This is a session for companies with medium-sized networks that want to connect their LANs to the Internet. It's a case study of what we did, what we didn't do, how to hook up addresses, name resolution, and e-mail (all Internet geek stuff) and not get eaten out of house and home.
95's no longer news, but there's a lot to this newest of PC operating systems. For support people, it's a combination of good and bad. Tired of sifting through PC manuals and magazines for an unbiased overview? Then come to this lively, fast-paced, up-to-the-minute presentation by author Mark Minasi, writer of the successful Expert's Guide to Windows 95. On the plus side, it introduces a new and generally better user interface and better support and network tools. On the minus side, Windows 95 may obsolete some of your current hardware, and it suffers from the same support problem that all operating systems do: the more work the operating system does to shield users from complexities, the more complex it's got to actually be under the hood. As a support person, you'll be on the "bleeding edge" trying to figure those bugs out and then work around them. During this talk, you'll see what pitfalls to avoid and what's going to make your life easier. And you'll get some important insights about the alternative to Windows 95 - Mark will talk about whether you should just pass up 95 and get NT!
More and more discussions of "PC Technology" seem not to include the PC. Instead, we hear more and more about RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Chip) computers like the DEC Alpha and the IBM Power PC - computers which do not run PC software, no matter what some experts say! Meanwhile, your software and operating systems choices have not gotten better, either. We need a plan to manage PCs in the 21st century - and Mark has one. In this lively, fast-paced talk, Mark will bring you up-to-date on what's new on the desktop. Come to this session and we'll save you money - and have a few laughs in the process!
Saddled with the task of teaching something
technical to people who either don't know - or, worse, don't want to know
anything about it? Mark Minasi's been doing that in 15 countries since 1984 with
a high degree of success. In this nuts 'n' bolts, technique-oriented session,
Mark shows you how to keep people's attention riveted on understanding the fine
points of Windows 98 Registry keys ... even after lunch. As
one of Mark’s session attendees remarked in an early November 1999
presentation, “if you’d taught all of my college classes, I’d have been a
straight-A student!” Want those
kind of evaluations? Then don’t
miss this session!
Getting burned out answering the same questions? Mr. Minasi started supporting PCs in 1982, has been in the trenches since. Join PC book author Mark Minasi for a lively, fast-paced look at avoiding stress and burnout in the support arena. Come for a recharge of your support batteries!
In the aftermath of a virus, or a malicious employee, or just plain bad luck, what can you do to bring your precious data back from the dead? Quite a bit, according to Mark Minasi, author of The Hard Disk Survival Guide and Inside DOS 6.0. Mark has lectured around the world on data recovery techniques since 1984 to crowds large and small, including The International Virus Prevention Forum. Come to this refreshing, fast-paced talk to find out things like the undocumented DOS command that eliminates 70 percent of the viruses today, the few simple items that you can do to prevent disk disaster, and whether or not it's actually true that space aliens and Elvis worked together to develop OS/2.
Although we've been buying PCs for years, the decision criteria change so much that it seems that last year's "architecture for the future" now looks hopelessly outmoded. MMX, Pentium, Pentium II, or Pentium Pro? NetPC or Net to PC? Laptop or desktop? PCI or AGP? EIDE or SCSI hard drives? Multimedia? And then there's networks ... In this lively, information-packed session, industry expert Mark Minasi brings you up to date on the latest PC technology. If you're about to buy a bunch of PCs, don't miss this talk.
This session explains two basic NT security issues. First, what happens when you log onto an NT network? This session describes how the interaction of user names, passwords, tokens, and security descriptors keeps your network secure. This is a must for anyone running an NT network -- and so is the second issue, NT security holes. In the second half of the session, Mark briefly explains the major security holes in NT -- how they work, what they do, and how (if possible) to plug those holes.
If you're currently an expert on NT, get ready, because soon everything you know will be wrong! What was once NT 5.0 brings Dfs, Active Directory, Plug and Play, Zero Administration Windows, and a lot more, in addition to a new name ... Windows 2000 Server, in three different flavors! Win2K doesn't make up for all of NT 4's limitations, but it offers some great strides and sets the scene for the later-arriving 64-bit NT. This session with industry analyst and bestselling technical author Mark Minasi is more than just a "feature dump:" it's first an analysis of what NT 4.0 lacks, how Windows 2000 addresses these problems, and how well it does -- what Win2K won't do. Additionally, as information becomes available, find out about the successor to Windows 2000, "NT64." If Active Directory, Dfs, Kerberos, LDAP, ZAW and HSM are all just alphabet soup to you, then don't miss this session!
Just getting started designing your Active Directory structure? Or did you just get "dropped" into an existing AD shop? You've probably heard that there's something called an organizational unit, something called a domain -- which is somehow different than an "ancient" old NT 4 domain -- as well as forests and trees. And DNS fits in here somewhere; will you have to replace all of those DNS servers? In fact, the major message that most people seem to get about AD is the "Everything That You Know Is Wrong." Fear not, for two reasons: first, in many ways AD isn't that different from what's come before and, second, you can come to this talk and have it all explained in just over one hour! You'll learn when to use domains versus when to use organizational units (as well as what they are!), how to design your new name space, why having four types of groups is simpler than having two types of groups, how to lay out your sites and, of course, what a site is in the first place. When offered in the past, this talk fills rooms up quickly -- so get there early to see the AD introduction that got Mark banned from presenting at Microsoft events!
One of Windows 2000's outstanding new features, Intellimirror offers both ease of use
and reliability. Often incorrectly touted as a feature mainly of benefit to mobile
users, Intellimirror is actually a powerful tool for improving network response time,
smoothing out network hiccoughs, and, well, yes, simplifying file synchronization for
mobile users. In this session, you'll learn how to configure Intellimirror on both
the client side and the server side. You'll see how it can improve not only access
to Windows 2000 servers but also to NT 4 servers. You'll discover how Intellimirror
can act as a sort of "uninterruptible power supply" for your network, and how
laptop users can use it to their greatest advantage.
Since the mid-80's, PC operating systems vendors have sought to improve their wares through increased ease of use and more powerful programming platforms. While that's delighted users and programmers, it's kind of left the technical support and educational staff out in the cold; PCs are no easier to support now than they were in 1984 -- in fact, in many ways, new OSes like Windows 95/98, OS/2, and NT are harder to support than DOS was. For more and more businesses, "TCO" -- Total Cost of Ownership -- is the watchword.
Responding to this need (and in an attempt to pre-empt Sun Microsystem's and Oracle's "Network Computer"), Microsoft is hard at work on something they call "Zero Administration Windows" or ZAW. It's a blend of existing technologies like system policies and user profiles with new technologies like Intellimirror, Server Intelligent Storage, and a new Installer service, seasoned with some new ideas in Windows application development. Is ZAW in your future? Probably. Why's it great -- and what's the catch? Windows NT Magazine columnist Mark Minasi gives you the news as we know it about ZAW in this presentation.
First introduced in 1998, Windows Terminal Server turns NT into a multi-user system. But this isn't just "re-inventing the mainframe," it's more a blend of centralized mainframe or minicomputer-type technology with its centralized backup, storage and administration and of the PC's interactivity. Windows Terminal Server 4.0 was a latecomer to the NT world (or an old-timer, depending on how you look at it, as WTS 4.0 is mainly reworked Citrix Winframe code), but it's a full-fledged member of the Windows 2000 family -- Terminal Server is built into every copy of Server, Advanced Server, and Data Center.
WTS is an interesting and useful technology, but it's got its limitations as well. In this illuminating, energetic presentation, Mark Minasi gets you ready for the good news and the bad news about Windows Terminal Server. You'll see what it can and can't do, as well as understanding what gets better under Windows 2000's version of Terminal Server.
Did you spend weeks struggling with policies and profiles under NT 4.0? A lot of it all works, but some doesn't, and in any case it's an uphill battle. Policy veterans will find a lot to like with Windows 2000's Group Policy Editor, a replacement for policies. GPO offers a far wider range of things to control as well as policy filtering, making it simpler to build policies on an enterprise, domain, group, or individual level.
While all that's great, GPO's also all-new and offers a wide array of sometimes-complex options. In this presentation, Win2K expert Mark Minasi shows you how to put together a set of group policies that will make it easier for you to manage user desktops from a central location, getting you home at a decent hour at night -- hence "more sleep!"
Now that Windows 2000 is finally here, how does it stack up, both against expectations and against the competition? And what should we expect for the NEXT release of NT-based software? Join NT expert Mark Minasi in a frank, independent look at what Windows 2000 excels at and what it fails at so that you can more intelligently decide if it's ready for your network. But that's not all -- there's yet ANOTHER NT on the horizon, or perhaps we should say SEVERAL NTs on the horizon, as Microsoft tries to move NT into the 64-bit world and the home computing and gaming worlds. Come be informed, provoked, and amused by Mark's trademark brand of humor and education!
Just when you finally got NT 4.0 down, 2000 appears and you've got to learn what that will do for (or to) you -- but on top of all that, now the boss wants to know how you can use Linux! Worse yet, a little research shows that there are quite a number of sources of information about Linux, but they're either really big books, written in a virulently anti-Windows tone (and therefore of no use to someone trying to figure out how to fit Linux into an existing NT network), or both.
In this essential talk, world-recognized NT expert Mark Minasi explains Linux from an NT expert's point of view. You're already adept at NT, so you don't need anyone to explain basic networking or networking tasks; heck, you live with that day in and day out. This talk exploits the fact that you already know about one networking operating system so as to quickly explain another. In this talk, you'll learn basically what Linux is, what sort of things it's good at and what it's not so good at, how to choose where to use NT and where to use Linux, and how to use Linux and NT's built-in tools to interoperate.
This is an unbiased, non-"religious" talk from someone who neither works for Microsoft nor any of the Linux organizations, someone who's been in the computing business for more than 25 years and whose only agenda is to figure out how your business can get its work done in the least amount of time for the least money. Looking for the shortest path between NT and Linux? Then attend this talk!
For the past five years, most NT networks have relied up on three important bits of "plumbing:" the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (which simplifies putting unique Internet addresses on every computer), the Domain Naming System (which keeps track of every computer's Internet name), and the Windows Internet Naming Service (which keeps track of every computer's Microsoft networking name -- yes, every NT PC has two names). Windows 2000 brings some important changes to both DHCP and WINS, and this talk tells you what those changes are and how to get the most out of them. But the really big story is DNS. DNS was once a sort of afterthought in NT networks. But in 2000-based networks, DNS is now a central repository of essential network information, so the majority of the talk focuses on DNS.
In this talk, you'll first learn about the shiny new plumbing in DHCP and WINS, and how to use it to make your network run more reliably. Then you'll see how DNS works: how its hierarchy of names functions, how it stores and replicates its data, and how to design an effective architecture of DNS servers. Then you'll learn about how Microsoft's Windows 2000 DNS servers go beyond the basics and extend DNS's power. Finally, you'll learn how to build a Windows 2000-based DNS architecture that can coexist with an existing non-Windows 2000 DNS structure.
Over the years, NT administrators have learned how to work with three basic "infrastructure" tools -- WINS, DNS and DHCP. But how well have we really learned about DNS? The truth is that NT 4.0 really didn't need DNS all that much, and most NT admins never had to do anything more challenging than set up a basic "domain" for DNS and pop a couple of records into that domain.
Now, with Active Directory, everything's changed. DNS stands at center stage and in fact you'd be crazy to even start implementing Active Directory before you had your DNS infrastructure nailed down. If you're not exactly sure what a "DNS forwarder" or "DNS slave" is, if you're fuzzy about the difference between domains and zones, if you were thinking that you'd expose the same set of DNS domains to the outside world as you do to your corporate network, then attend this entertaining, amusing -- and informative tutorial. DNS can be dull -- unless Mark's explaining it!