Mark Minasi's Windows 2000/NT/XP Newsletter
Issue #27 November 2002
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copyright 2002 Mark Minasi.
- Catch My Free Security Talk Online
- XP Support Seminars: Philly, Kansas
City, Honolulu, LA, DC and NY in 2003
- Windows .NET 2003 Server Seminars in Tampa in November, Chicago, Houston,
Honolulu and LA in 2003
- I Will (Sniff!) Not Be Speaking At Future Techmentors
- Pick Up A Copy of our Windows 2000/.NET Audio Seminar and Software
- Tech Section
- Shutting Off Services
- Rolling Out Service Packs with Group Policies
- Finding That Command-Line Gold
- Making XP Command Prompts Open to C:\
- Running Administrative Tools From XP SP1
- Caution: Make Sure You're Only Logged In Once If You Change
Passwords in AD
- Bring a Seminar to Your Site
Hello all --
As you've noticed, you're getting the newsletter a different way, via URL
rather than in your e-mail. In case you're wondering, this isn't intended
to be a permanent change. Rather, I'm trying to figure out how many of the
bounced messages that I'm getting are actually from dead e-mail addresses, as
opposed to the ones that bounce because of some hyperactive filter program.
For some reason a number of my subscribers don't get the newsletter because
their e-mail servers claim that they detect VBScript in the e-mail -- something
that doesn't make sense to me, as there's never anything in the HTML emails any
scarier than a URL. As I sent you all a simple text e-mail, I'm hoping
that the overly paranoid scanners didn't object to the URL link to here.
This month features a few articles that I think you'll find useful --
some advice on shutting down excess services and how to use group policies to
roll out service packs. Others offer some tips and point a pitfall in
changing passwords in Active Directory. I'm working away at the .NET Server book
-- that's why it's been so long since the last newsletter -- and it's shaping up
pretty nicely. The Linux book ought to be on the shelves by the time you
read this. Amazon has it for $35 at http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0782141196/markminasi
and Bookpool has it for $31 at http://www.bookpool.com/.x/3k34tijmkr/sm/0782141196
. Both are taking pre-orders and claim they'll have it by the 12th.
Catch My Free Security Talk Online
We had a terrific turnout in NY, Chicago, San Francisco and Denver but if you missed them then
there's another chance. The magazine has put the roadshow online at http://app2.streampipe.com/vtc/switch.tc?c=10156&cn=renaissance&s=20253&e=1999#
and it's free. My talk is "12 tips to secure your network."
XP Support Seminars: Philly, Kansas
City, Honolulu, DC, LA and NY in 2003
If your company is making the move from Wintendo (Win 9x), NT 4.0 or Windows
2000 Pro to XP Professional, then we've got the seminar for you! "XP
Professional for Support Professionals" shows your desktop support
techies how to deploy, network, manage, support and troubleshoot XP
Professional, in just two days. This seminar is packed with demonstrations
and a course guide filled with step by step procedures. As always, I try
my best to make explaining entertaining so come join us in 2003 in Philadelphia, Kansas City, Honolulu,
LA, DC or New York. Visit www.minasi.com/pubsems.htm
for schedule specifics or www.minasi.com/xpsupport.htm
for the course outline.
Or, if you just can't wait... contact us about bringing me to your site,
where I can tailor the class to your company's needs.
Windows .NET 2003 Server Seminars in Chicago, Houston, Honolulu, DC and LA in 2003
Our very successful two-year run of our seminar on how to plan for, install,
manage and troubleshoot Windows 2000 Server is over; we won't be running any
more public 2000 Server seminars.
In February, we'll inaugurate a brand-new class on planning,
installing, managing and troubleshooting Windows .NET 2003 Server! Okay,
I'm kidding a bit. Yes, there will be a new seminar starting in
February. But it won't be an earth-shaking change from the Windows 2000
Server class simply because despite the drastic-sounding name change, Windows
.NET 2003 Server isn't that different from Windows 2000 Server. Not that
there's nothing new to learn, not by any means. But where Windows 2000
Server was a major change from NT 4.0, .NET Server is more of a "Windows
2000 Server version 1.1." Many of the concepts will remain unchanged
from the first course -- but naturally .NET Server adds some new goodies, and
we'll cover them in the class. But you'll still learn a lot... 2003 Server
doesn't always change what Server can do, but it often changes how you make
it do something.
Our first .NET Server class will be in Chicago in February, then we'll go to
Houston, Honolulu, Los Angeles, and DC. I hope you'll join me for a seminar that will fill your brain
with knowledge and share a few laughs in the process.
NOTE that every attendee gets the Mastering Windows .NET 2003 Server book (once
the book's finished).
I Will (Sniff!) Not Be Speaking At Future Techmentors
I know that some of you must plan far into the future if you want your
companies to find money for seminars and conferences;
that's why we've put together the entire 2003 public seminar schedule already.
Many of you tell me -- quite kindly, and thanks! -- that whether or not I'm
talking at a conference is a big criterion in your choice of conferences,
so I wanted to post a note about a change for next year: I won't be
speaking at 101Communications' Techmentor conferences, unfortunately. The
current conference chair, who is also the editorial director of
101Communications' Microsoft Certified Professional magazine, told me
after this fall's San Diego conference that she wanted to focus on speakers who
also write for MCP magazine, and of course I don't write for MCP mag, so I'm
That's a shame, as 101Communication's own readers voted me their favorite
technical author just a couple of months ago at the 101Communications'
CertCities Web site, but I understand the conference chair's reasoning -- it's a
brutal time business-wise for anyone doing a tech-oriented magazine or
conference. She probably feels that matching up the masthead of MCP Mag
more closely with Techmentor's speaker list is worth trying in order to bolster
both businesses. And I wish them well -- Microsoft Certified
Professional is a great magazine and I've always enjoyed Techmentors, which
feature top-notch speakers. Techmentor's contact line is email@example.com
for more info.
Again, if you are planning which conferences to attend next year then
I hope you'll plan to attend one that I'll be speaking at -- so watch
this newsletter for the dates and locations for Windows Magazine LIVE! (where we
let people speak no matter what magazine they write for <grin>), or
check their Web site at www.winconnections.com.
Pick Up A Copy of our Windows 2000/.NET Audio Seminar and Software Quality
Want to attend the Server class but haven't the time or money? $225 gets you
the audio version of the seminar complete with over 10 hours of lecture accompanied by illustrative
PowerPoints, all nicely cross-indexed for future reference. Pick up a copy
today at www.minasi.com/audiosales.
Only 30 left and then they are gone forever.
Do computer bugs bug you? Find out why they're so prevalent and what
you can do about them by grabbing a copy of my 1999 McGraw-Hill book The Software Conspiracy:
Why Software Vendors Produce
Faulty Products, How They Can Harm You, And What You Can Do About It.
It's just five bucks in e-book (PDF) format. If you've read my other books
then you know my technical writing -- but this book is aimed at both techies and
non-techies. The much-respected Kirkus Reviews said of that it was "A lucidly written, eminently practical guide to fighting back against the modern scourge of software 'bugs' ... An absorbing, easily understandable, and inspiring book..."
Get your copy at www.softwareconspiracy.com.
This month, we start with a couple of topics that came up at our first two Security
Roadshows and move to some great short tips.
Which Services Can I Turn Off?
Services are programs that run on an NT/2000/XP/.NET machine whether
someone's logged into that machine or not. While they are quite useful,
each service presents yet another potential source for hackers seeking to find
security holes to exploit in order to seize control of your system.
Additionally, services take up RAM and CPU power. So many security experts
recommend turning off unnecessary services.
But which services are unnecessary? That's a tough question to answer
entirely, but here are a few suggestions. Don't take these as gospel,
because every service is needed by someone. But they're a few
things to look at.
Server and/or Computer Browser service
The Server service enables your computer to share its files with other
computers, to act as a "server" in the "client-server" sense
of file sharing. The other half of this transaction is the client piece of
file sharing, another service with perhaps the most misleading name of
any NT service: the "workstation" service.
Clearly any system that will act as a file server must have this service
enabled. But the odd thing about Microsoft operating systems is that they
all install with the Server service enabled, including Windows XP, 2000
Professional, Windows 98, and Windows ME. Thus, if you had 1000
workstations and 50 servers on your network, then you've got a total of 1,050
That's bad because anyone who can get access to the Server service on your
computer could easily get access to any file on your computer. And most
workstations don't share files, so why run the thing anyway, as it just takes up
CPU power and 1/2 meg of RAM? (Some people do need to run this, as
their administrators like to be able to connect to the default C$, D$, etc
shares. If this is the case, then I guess you should leave it on.)
Furthermore, every server annoys the network by announcing its presence every
12 minutes with a broadcast saying "hi, I'm still here... I'm a server
named JoesPC and I don't have anything to share, but I'm a server and I wanted
you all to know that I'm still here!" Broadcasts slow down a network
and the machines on the network, as everything's got to stop and listen to the
broadcast to see if there's anything important in it. Those broadcasts go
into the server browse list, which is how all of those computers get into
Network Neighborhood / My Network Places.
Now, even if you do want the Server service running on all of your
systems, you can get the systems to stop doing those broadcasts by stopping a
different service -- the Computer Browser service. Some people worry that
turning this off will keep their computer from being able to browse My Network
Places, but that's not the case at all. This service only announces a server's
presence; shutting it off on your computer will still let you open up NetHood
and see the other computers on the network. (By leaving your Server
service on and disabling Computer Browser, you are, then, essentially running
your server in "stealth mode;" think of this as a Romulan cloaking
device for servers.)
People tend to leave the Server service on for two reasons that are
unnecessary: Web servers and Remote Assistance / NetMeeting. You do
not need to have the Server service running on a Web server, and both Remote
Assistance and NetMeeting can still transfer files without the Server service.
Manual and off by default, but you always have to wonder if someone will find
a way to exploit it... I have very few systems attached to fax-capable
modems, so I disable this wherever I find it.
This seems to get turned on wherever you have a Web server. It's a
great way to build fast, powerful search engines for a Web server but unless
you've explictly created a search page on your Web then disable this.
Also, delete the two default indexes "System" and "Web" and
instead create custom indexes as needed. See Newsletter #17 for more info
on Indexing Service, but the bottom line is that most of us can safely ignore
Alerter and Messenger
Two services that support pop-up messages on your desktop. These are not
the pop-ups that you get on the Web -- shutting down these services will not get
rid of Web pop-ups, unfortunately. Nor is this Windows Messenger.
The system uses this to send administrative messages; for example, it's possible
to type "net send * get off the system" and everyone will get a little
pop-up message that says "get off the system;" the idea is that
administrators can use this as a primitive kind of instant messaging to network
I tend to turn this off, but be aware that if you do then many error messages
only appear in the event logs at that point.
IMAPI CD-Burning COM Service
New to XP, this service assists XP's Roxio CD Creator. If you turn it
off, then Roxio stops working. If, on the other hand, you use a separate
third-party burner, like Ahead Software's Nero Burning ROM, then the service is
unnecessary and you can disable it.
Shell Hardware Detection
This is new to XP. When you plug in certain kinds of hardware, like
cameras, CF cards or the like, then XP responds by popping up a window and
asking you what you'd like to do -- download pictures, create a slide show,
etc. That's all done with the "shell hardware detection"
service. If you find the "what shall we do with this new
hardware?" windows irritating then you can shut off this service.
Still Image Service
Camera support stuff. If you know you use it, great. Otherwise,
I'm not sure why this is, but XP actually has a service that supports
Themes. Call me an old fuddy-duddy, but I prefer to burn my CPU cycles
getting work done or playing a game, so I've never quite understood why anyone
would turn on the zooming menus and the other stuff that you can do on the
UI. As I'm kind a plain-blue-background-and-no-sound-effects guy, this
service doesn't do anything for me, so I shut it off.
Volume Shadow Service
This is the client half of a neat tool that lets you simply and automatically
archive important files several times a day. Unfortunately, the server
half isn't appearing until Windows .NET 2003 Server arrives. So it's safe
to stop this service for now... but don't forget to turn it back on when .NET
If you have Web pages that you store on other people's servers, then you need
some way to connect to those servers to change your Web content. For years
FTP has been a popular approach but it's a little limited for some, which led to
an improved over-the-Internet file sharing system called the Web Distributed
Authoring and Versioning or WebDAV protocol. (Look up RFCs 2518 and 3258
if you need the geeky details.) Basically, though, it's a file sharing
system that runs over port 80, piggy-backing on HTTP. And it's a terrific
idea, as anyone who's ever fought with an FTP client can attest.
XP includes the client-side part of it in a service called the Web
Client. 2000, .NET and, if I recall right, IIS 4.0 include the server-side
in "Web folders." See, you probably didn't even know that you
had a built-in file sharing system that had nothing at all to do with SMB and
that can slip past your firewalls because it runs on port 80!
But what's that you say, you need to know how well-tested the Web Client and
Web Folders are? Me too. My paranoid suspicion is that this is going
to turn out to be a great protocol with the usual bunch of security holes that
someone will discover and exploit some day. So for myself, I shut off the
Web Client service and avoid Web folders on my Web servers.
Windows Image Acquisition
Support for webcams mostly. If you're not using one, then you can shut
this service off.
World Wide Web Publishing Service, SMTP, FTP
For years, Microsoft has installed a Web server on every copy of Server,
unless you asked Setup not to. That's why there are still systems
out there trying to infect my Web servers with Nimda -- there are people who set
up 2000 Server or NT Server to be a file server and who don't even realize that
they've become and "accidental webmaster," so they don't know that
their Web server (the one that they don't even know that they have) is infected
and is trying to infect others.
Take a moment and see if you're running FTP, SMTP, or IIS on a server that
you don't want to run those services on. You'll tighten up your
system's security and get back some resources.
And If You Have XP...
You may find that your computer came with a copy of XP and that the hardware
vendor added a few services. Could they be making your system more wobbly
or less secure? There's an easy way to test to see if you need these extra
services. Just start up msconfig.exe and click the "Services"
tab. It's got a check box on it labeled "Hide Microsoft
Services;" check it and you'll see just the stuff that the vendor (and
perhaps you, depending on what you've installed) added. You can then stop
any of those services or even click the "disable all" button to shut
'em all off. You can then restart your system and, well, just see if you
miss any of them.
If you get too nuts and find that you've stopped a service that you
needed to get your system going, then you can always start it with the Recovery
Console and use the enable command to tell your system to start the service;
then you'll be back up and running.
Rolling Out Service Packs With Group Policies
I mentioned at the Roadshow that it's essential to keep up to date with
service packs (and of course hotfixes). I roll out hotfixes automatically
with the Software Update Service, which I've discussed elsewhere. But
service packs are very simple to roll out with a group policy object.
Several people in the audience indicated that they'd not figured the process
out, so here it is step-by-step. I've done this both for XP systems to
deliver XP's SP1 and Windows 2000's SP3.
In brief, the approach is simple: expand the service pack, put it on a
share, create a group policy object that assigns the service pack's MSI to a
machine, and apply that GPO to a group of machines.
Before starting, let me suggest that if you have never created a group policy
or do not know how group policies work that you review the group policy material
in Chapters 8, 9 and 12 of Mastering Windows 2000 Server.
Expand the Service Pack
First, expand the service pack. Service packs come as large EXE files
-- XP SP1 is 137 MB in size, 2000's SP3 is 129 MB. But they've got to be
expanded into their component files before it's possible to use a group policy
on them. Do that with the -x option. For example, suppose you've
places Windows 2000's SP3 file w2ksp3.exe on a server named \\sv1.
You want systems to retrieve a copy of SP3 from this server. Start out by
expanding SP3 with this command:
That command causes the service pack to ask where you'd like it expanded to
-- "Choose directory for extracted files." For this example, tell it to save the expanded files to C:\2KSP3.
(It'll take a few minutes.)
Share the Directory
Once it's finished expanding, take a look at the 2KSP3 directory. It
will contain a directory I386; share it, so now we've got \\sv1\i386.
Create the Group Of SP3 Targets
We won't want to create a group policy that applies to all machines, as those
machines might include XP or .NET Server machines. Instead, we'll want to
use something called policy filtering to restrict the systems that get the SP3
group policy object (GPO).
Open Active Directory Users and Computers and create a global group called
SP3 Targets, and then add all of your Windows 2000 Professional and Server
machines to this group. (Or you might want to only include one machine
initially for test purposes, and then add the others later.)
Create the Group Policy Object
That i386 share contains a directory named update, which will contain a file
named update.msi. That is our target file for the group policy
object. Open Active Directory Users and Computers and right-click the
object in the left-hand pane that represents your domain, then choose
In the resulting property page, you will see three tabs. One will be
labeled "Group Policies;" click it.
Click the "New" button to create a new group policy object.
Name it "Deliver Windows 2000 SP3."
Next, we'll make sure that this GPO only applies to the systems in the
"SP3 Targets" group by adjusting the permissions on this new
GPO. Start by clicking Properties.
You'll see ACLs for the GPO and you'll probably see one for Authenticated
Users, one for CREATOR OWNER, one for Domain Admins, another for Enterprise
Admins and yet another for SYSTEM. Click the "Authenticated
Users" ACL, and then the "Remove" button.
Click Add... and add the SP3 Targets group. In the field labeled
"Permissions for Authenticated Users," make sure that the boxes for
"Read" and "Apply Group Policy" under "Allow" are
Click OK when done adjusting the GPO's ACLs to return to the "Group
Click the "Deliver Windows 2000 SP3" GPO and then the
Under Computer Configuration, open the folder labeled "Software
Click the small icon that looks like a blue-striped box labeled
In the right-hand pane, right-click the background and choose
New/Package. That will bring up a dialog box named "Open."
This is where you tell the GPO where to find the MSI file. You must be
sure to point to the GPO using a UNC, like \\servername\blahblah
instead of c:\somedirectory\blahblah.
Remember that you've shared the I386 directory of the service pack, and the file
that you want is update\update.msi inside that directory. In my example,
I'd fill in the Open dialog box with
and click OK. That will immediately raise a dialog box labeled
"Deploy Software" which offers you two options: Assigned or
Advanced. Click the "Assigned" radio button and then OK. Close
the Group Policy snap-in, the domain property page and Active Directory Users
Now reboot any computer in the SP3 Targets group. As the system boots,
you'll see the familiar dialog box with the Windows 2000 Server logo and the
all-too-familiar "please wait..." message. At the bottom of the
dialog, you will eventually see a message like "Now installing managed
software Windows 2000 Service Pack 3."
Finding That Command-Line Gold
If you read my books and articles on a regular basis then you know that I'm a
command line devotee -- I'm always looking for great new ways to do things from
the command line.
I'm sure I've mentioned this before, but if you've never taken a look at
\winnt\help\ntcmds.chm then you really need to -- it's a Help file that covers
all of the command-line tools in Windows 2000, XP and .NET Server. Here's
a few worth looking into that ship with XP:
- Sc lets you control services, including the ability to uninstall services
from the Registry altogether.
- Taskkill lets you stop any program running on any
computer. (Assuming you have the right to do that.)
- Relog reformats Perfmon information from its normal binary log format to
CSV or other formats.
- Eventquery, eventcreate and eventtriggers control and examine event logs
for local and remote computers.
- Getmac returns your network card's MAC address.
- Diskpart is FDISK's successor, an extremely power disk partitioning tool.
- Anyone who's ever fooled with boot.ini's bizarre ARC-type disk
identification formats will like bootcfg.
- Openfiles lets you find out who's got a given file open, so when you get
that message about how you can't delete a file because it's in use then you
can find out who's using it.
- WMIC is a powerful tool with a sort of strange interface that lets you
examine and change Windows Management Instrumentation information on your
There are lots more of these commands, those are just a few. I can't stress
strongly enough that command line tools are worth investigating. They're
often my "secret weapon" when trying to fix a system that's not
responding too well on the GUI, but that will cough up a command prompt window.
Making XP Command Prompts Open to C:\
And speaking of command lines...
I use XP a bit more than half of the time these days and find that there's a
lot to like about it. But it has a really irritating habit when opening
command prompts -- instead of dumping you at C:\>, which it would normally do
unless you've configured your account otherwise, it opens you to the location of
your local profile. As a result, instead of a prompt like
C:\>Documents and Settings\JoeBlow
Which can take up half the width of a command
window. I usually end up just typing cd \ and Enter to get the prompt back
to C:\>. It finally irritated me enough that I remembered that you can
tell Windows 2000 or XP to always execute a particular command when opening up a
command prompt -- kind of like an AUTOEXEC.BAT for command prompt windows.
Just look in HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Command Processor and in
that key you'll see an entry called AutoRun. You can put any command in
there, so I just enter "cd \" and then from that point on, I can just
open a command prompt to see C:\>. If you want to do more than one
command, just put an ampersand ("&") between the commands, like
cd \ & echo Hello master, what are your commands?
That affects command windows for the whole system -- no matter who's logged
in at your computer, she'll get that when she opens a command prompt
window. But if she wants a different AutoRun, then she can modify the
entry in HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor and change the
Running Administrative Tools From XP SP1
Ever since XP appeared it's been hard to administer a Windows 2000 or
.NET-based network from XP; for some reason the standard adminpak.msi does not
work on XP. So Microsoft released a set of beta administration tools for
XP. Unfortunately, once you install SP1 for XP then they break.
They've got a newer version of the administration tools for XP at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/release.asp?ReleaseID=34032.
But it's a cranky install -- it refers you to Knowledge Base article 304718 (READ IT!!!) that
tells you to first uninstall all previous versions of the adminpak.msi and then
copy a few lines from the Q article to create a batch file that you must
run. Then you can install the new adminpak.msi. It's
irritating but in my experience it works.
Change AD Passwords Wrong And You Can Get Locked Out
A couple of weeks ago I was at the Windows Magazine LIVE! conference in Orlando and
sat in on Don Jones' talk on Windows security where I picked up a great
tip. If you're going to change your Active Directory domain account's
password and your domain enforces lockouts after some number of invalid logon
tries, then be sure that you're only logged onto one computer. Let's take
that in slow motion...
Suppose you're a member of a domain, bigfirm.biz. To help secure the
network, bigfirm.biz locks users out after six consecutive bad logon
attempts. You're logged onto two different workstations, call them WS1 and
WS2, using your domain account and password "swordfish." Both
have Kerberos tickets from when you logged on. Kerberos tickets last ten
hours by default -- you can change that if you like -- and by default WS1 and
WS2 will try to renew their tickets when they expire. When you logged into
WS1, it remembered the password that you typed into it -- swordfish -- and
WS2 did the same.
While sitting at WS1, you decide to change the password from
"swordfish" to "mackerel." (Just for the
halibut.) The change takes, and WS1 learns in the process that your new
password is "mackerel." When the ticket expires, then WS1 will
use "mackerel" to renew the ticket. So far, so good.
But what about WS2?
Eventually the ten hours are up and WS2's ticket expires. So it tries
to renew the ticket, using the password that it remembers for you. That
is, "swordfish." The domain controller rejects the logon
attempt, as the password is no longer "swordfish." WS2 makes
these logon attempts in your name and, employing the doggedness and speed of a
computer, manages to bombard the domain controller with six consecutive failed
logon attempts in a row. Result? The domain locks you out.
Moral of the story: when changing passwords, make sure you're only
logged into one system at the moment.
I hope you'll join me for a seminar but if you can't attend a class then
please consider attending Comdex:
Fall Comdex November 18-21 Las Vegas
George Spalding and I team up yet again for Fall Comdex's "Extreme
Knowledge" (doesn't that sound painful, "extreme" knowledge?)
seminar sessions on Microsoft Windows technologies. If you're going to
Vegas this November then consider dropping by to hear me, Christa Anderson, Todd
Lammle, Doug Toombs, Jeremy Moskowitz and others deliver the goods on running
Windows without pane! Go to http://education.key3media.com:8080/comdex/lv2002/education/FMPro?-DB=CXprogrm.fp5&-lay=webform&-format=conf_w_tracks.html&Program_ID=1037&-Find
for more info.
Bring Mark to your site to teach
I'm keeping busy doing Windows 2000/.NET Server seminars and writing, but I've still got time to visit your firm. In just two
days, I'll make your current NT techies into 2000/.NET techies. To join
the large educational, pharmaceutical, agricultural, aerospace, banking, government,
transportation, and other organizations that I've assisted, either take a peek
at the course outline at www.minasi.com/w2koutln.htm,
mail our assistant at Assistant@Minasi.com,
or call her at (757) 426-1431 (only between 9-5 Eastern time, weekdays, please).
Until Next Month...
Have a quiet and safe month. I'll be traveling to conferences and
classes and working on the .NET Server book (thank God for VMWare). I don't often get a chance to say it,
but many thanks to the many of you who've bought a book,
audio seminar, attended a conference or a live seminar.
Please share this newsletter; I'd like
very much to expand this newsletter into a useful source of NT/2000/.NET
Server/XP information. Please forward it to any associates who might find
it helpful, and accept my thanks. We are now at over 21,000 subscribers and I hope to use this to get information to every single Mastering
XP, NT and 2000 Server reader. Thanks for letting me visit with you, and take
care -- the economy's coming back soon, I'm sure of it! Many, many thanks to the readers who have
mailed me to offer suggestions, errata, and those kind reviews. As always,
I'm at http://www.minasi.com/gethelp and
please join us at the Forum with technical questions at www.minasi.com/forum.
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